Orang Ulu ("upriver people") is an ethnic designation politically coined to group together roughly 27 very small but ethnically diverse tribal groups in Sarawak, with a population ranging from less than 300 persons to over 25,000 persons. Orang Ulu is not a legal term and no such racial group is listed in the Malaysia Constitution. The term was popularised by a minority association known as "Orang Ulu National Association" that was formed in 1969.
The Orang Ulu typically live in longhouse elaborately decorated with murals and woodcarvings. They are also well-known for their intricate beadwork detailed tattoos. The Orang Ulu tribes can also be identified by their unique music - distinctive sounds from their sape, a stringed instrument not unlike the mandolin.
A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribes are Christians but old traditional religions are still practiced in some areas.